Canada is the northern country present in North America, which has about ten provinces and three territories. By the total area of 9,984,670 km2, It’s the second-largest country in the world. The capital city of Canada is Ottawa. Moreover, Canada is the only country in the world with the most extensive bi-national border. Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver are the three significant metropolitan areas with the largest population. Most Canada population is thinly populated, and a large volume of people live in urban areas.
Métis, Inuit, and First Nations are the indigenous people to live in Canada for more than 10,000 years. Most people have migrated from Siberia before several thousand years ago. The population of the indigenous people is around 2 lakh to 1 million individuals during the 17th century. But after the arrival of the Europeans, the population decreased due to the disease(low immunity). Smallpox, measles, and influenza are the leading cause of death. The indigenous population decreased by forty to eighty percent in a few years. But in later years, the indigenous population tend to increase at a steady level.
The current Canada population is about 37,307,734 individuals. The expected number of people at the end of 2019 (Q2) is approximately 37,602,103. The population density of the country is at the rate of 3.92/km2. From the year 2011 to 2016, Canada population has increased by 1.7 million people, which is exactly a 5 % growth. The critical reasons for the increasing population are immigration and birth rate.
Canada is the top-most country in the world with a high rate of immigrants. Economic policy is also one of the primary reasons to attract a large number of immigrants, and most of the political parties support immigrants. All the entering immigrants are settled in the areas of Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal. Furthermore, more than 80% of the Canada population lives in the southern region within the 150km borders of the United States. The densely populated Provinces of Canada are south Ontario, southern Quebec, British Columbia, and Alberta.
The Canada metropolitan area with a large number of the population is Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Ottawa–Gatineau, Edmonton, Quebec, Winnipeg, Hamilton, and Kitchener-Cambridge–Waterloo. Moreover, 69% of people live as a family, and 26% of people live alone.
The familiar ethnic people living in Canada are French, English, Irish, German, Scottish, Chinese, First Nations, Italian, Ukrainian, and Indian. Canada population follows the religions of Christianity under Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Baptists, and the United Church of Canada, followed by Sikhism, Islam, and Hinduism. Moreover, 24% of Canadian people do not pursue any religion.
The total area of Canada is about 9,984,670 km2 in which the land cover an area approximately of 9,093,507 km2. Water occupies the remaining space of 892 km2. Although Canada has an extensive land area, dense forest and tundra cover the most of its space.
The United States borders the entire southern region of Canada. In the western side, Alaska state of United States borders Canada’s Yukon territory. The Arctic Ocean, Labrador Sea, and Atlantic Ocean form boundary in the entire northern, northeastern, and eastern part of Canada.
Most of the Canada Population speak English and French as their official languages in all of the province and Territories. Apart from these languages, other indigenous languages are recognized as an official language in few regions. Furthermore, 56% of people speak English as their mother tongue, and 21% of people speak French as their mother tongue.
Moreover, 7.3 million people speak non-official languages, which are Chinese, Punjabi, Spanish, Tagalog, Arabic, German, and Italian. According to Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Canadian government follows English and the French language in their system. Moreover, Citizen has the right to get official documents in other official languages other than English and French.
Quebec, Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Alberta uses the official language of French. Several indigenous languages have also got official language status in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
As of 2018, Canada is the world’s tenth-largest economic country with a total GDP of 1.73 trillion USD. The significant industries of the country are forestry, petroleum, mining, automobiles, aerospace, oil, and natural gas. Moreover, Canada has the 7th largest stock exchange, which is the Toronto Stock Exchange has more than 1500 companies. The service sector is also a primary reason for rising in the GDP and hires 75% of the country employees.
The next primary sector for the development of Canada is Exports, Mining, and petroleum-related industries. In the oil reserve, Canada has the 13% total oil global reserve. In terms of agriculture, the major products grown are grains, wheat, potato, canola, and it’s one of the top exporters in the world. Many regions of Canada has a good mining source of lead, uranium, nickel, gold, steel, aluminum, coking coal, iron ore, and zinc. Also, Canada stands top in the export of mined elements as a finished product.
Quebec and Ontario is the central place for the manufacture and export of automobiles and aeronautics. In terms of Science and Technology, Canada is the well-developed country. Moreover, the country has its space agency and successfully tested many space shuttle since 1960. Also, the government spends around 31.6 billion C$ in research and development. In terms of Internet access, Canada ranks first serving over 33 million users.
Canada has a large land area and its second-largest country in the world. The country has numerous freshwater lakes in every region. Most northern Canada region is covered by ice because the country is only 817Km away from the North pole. Coastal areas are very long, which stretches upto 243,042 km.
A unique feature about Canada is that its share about 8,891 km borderline with the United States of America. The dense forest covers most of the country’s land, which is boreal forest. Moreover, more than 42% of the land area in Canada is covered by forest than any other country. As we already have seen, Canada has a large reserve of freshwater and have about 2,000,000 lakes.
The famous volcanic mountains present in Canada are Mount Edziza volcanic complex, Mount Cayley massif, Mount Garibaldi, and Mount Meager massif. An unusual volcanic eruption took place at the end of 18th century near the Nass River, killing over a few thousand people.
Since Canada’s present near to the north pole, the temperature will be freezing in most of the year. Also, ice and permafrost cover the land and water area. The climate for all of the province will be continental except the British Columbia.
The northern part of the country experiences an arctic and subarctic climate, where temperature can drop upto -20 °C. The lowest temperature recorded in Canada is -63 °C in 1947, and the highest temperature was 45 °C in 1937.
In most of the regions, the summer would be warmer, and the temperature will range from 1 °C to 29 °C. Furthermore, the winter will be freezing, and the temperature reaches -1 °C to -35 °C.